Note 10:

EV batteries could be charged by distributed solar PV and / or by the current “super green” tariff electricity (available for as little as 5 p/kWh between 12.30am and 4.30am every day) during daylight hours or overnight and discharged daily for road travel and /or Grid supply using V2G.

If 100% available EV battery storage were discharged daily, then the value based upon the current difference between the typical domestic electricity tariff (over 20 p/kWh) and the “super green” tariff would generate up to £4,100 - £5,500 pa for an EV car owner for a high-performance 75–100 kWh EV battery with 365 charge / discharge cycles pa.

Clearly, this return will be reduced if the V2G /V2H EV owner receives less than 100% standard to “super green” tariff difference, the Depth-of-Discharge (DoD) and Round-Trip Efficiency (RTP) are less than 100% and the EV is used a means of transport at times when V2G /V2H supply is required by the National Grid.

Based upon average annual car mileage 8,700 miles pa, average annual speed of 40 mph for annual total mileage, 75–100 kWh usable EV battery capacity, battery charging rate of 20–25 kW and 3.75 miles range per kWh charge, then the EV car will be used as a means of transport for

8,700 / 40 = 218 hours annual driving time (i.e. 2.5% total available hours pa)

+ 8,700 / (3.75 x 20) = 116 hours annual charging time (i.e. 1.3% total available hours pa)

= 334 hours annual driving and charging time (i.e. 3.8% total available hours pa)

This calculation shows that an EV car’s primary use is “mobile battery” (V2H. V2B & V2G) and its secondary use is “means of transport”.

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