Note 4: Potential Grid electricity storage capacity provided by the “Best Available Solution”:

“Mobile Smart Batteries” (EVs): up to 3,187 GWh per charge / discharge cycle (2,354 GWh by 32 million cars @ 75 kWh per car; 440 GWh by 4.4 million LGVs @ 100 kWh per LGV); 325 GWh by 0.5million HGVs @ 650 kWh per HGV; 68 GWh by 0.15 million buses and coaches @ 450 kWh per bus/coach)

Large batteries at EV charge point stations: 100 GWh assuming 10,000 stations @ 10 MWh battery capacity per station per charge / discharge cycle. Second hand EV batteries (which have degraded to 80% usable capacity after approximately 10 years of operating life) could be used in “battery farms” at charge point stations. 100 GWh is equivalent to 1.25 to 1.67 million second hand EV car batteries @ 80 (i.e. 80% x 100 kWh) to 60 (i.e. 80% x 75 kWh).

Existing utility scale batteries connected to Grid: 1.3 GWh per charge / discharge cycle.

Total potential annual battery storage capacity in EVs and at charge point stations assuming 365charge/discharge cycles pa available to supply Grid during peak loading times= (3.187 + 0.1) x 365 = 1,200 TWh pa

Existing pumped hydroelectric storage: 2.8 GW providing 4,075 GWh pa